Friday, 13 April 2018

Figures of Speech

"Language is the Dress of Thought."
                                                      - Samuel Johnson, Writer

 FIGURES OF SPEECH
Personification (human qualities to inanimate)
The fire engulfed the car.
Hyperbole (exaggeration/overstatement)
The cruel and cold-blooded murder of Tsar and his family was kept secret for many decades.
I told you a thousand times.
Litote (understatement)
Tis but a scratch.
Onomatopoeia (sounds!)
hush, oink, click, whoosh, splat, buzz
Euphemism
Caroline passed away yesterday night.
Irony (opposite)
Caesar was an ambitious man. >verbal irony<
Krishna and Kansa >situational irony<
Romeo and Juliet >dramatic irony<
Pun (word play)
Dreamers often lie.
Alliteration (repetition)
Sad Salesman Sonny Sam
Oxymoron (contradiction)
He is regularly irregular.
Metaphor (understanding; substitution/transfer)
Lean Mapping:
Ferrari is a rocket(=fast).
The world is my oyster(=free).

Rich Mapping:
You’re wasting my time.
We’ve arrived at a disturbing conclusion.
Spiders are marching along the wall.
Simile (metaphor that uses words such as “like” or “as”)
Time flies like an arrow.
She’s as cute as a button.
It’s like shooting fish in a barrel.

Note: Every simile is a metaphor.
Synecdoche (substituted by a part of the whole aka meronym)

Metonymy (referential; contiguity)
Ferrari(=car) is a rocket.
Give us this day our daily bread(=food, needs).
The pen(=writing) is mightier than the sword(=war).
Maybe now the suits(=officials) in Washington will listen.
White House(=spokesperson of the Government of the USA) has announced a press meet today afternoon.
White House(=USA) withdrew from the Paris agreement.

Note: In linguistics, synecdoche is often considered as a type of metonymy.

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